Tuesday, June 6, 2023
HomeIoTIoT Connectivity - Evaluating NB-IoT, LTE-M, LoRa, SigFox, and different LPWAN Applied...

IoT Connectivity – Evaluating NB-IoT, LTE-M, LoRa, SigFox, and different LPWAN Applied sciences

The names of different LPWAN technologies

In our first article on LPWAN applied sciences, we lined among the fundamentals – what LPWAN is and among the advantages of LPWAN over different connectivity choices. In our second set up of this sequence, we’ll examine among the main LPWAN applied sciences and gamers within the area. On the finish of this text, it is best to have a broad understanding of which LPWAN is correct in your IoT undertaking or deployment, and a few subsequent steps on the place to go from right here.

LPWAN Applied sciences

Whereas there are various LPWAN applied sciences and requirements, we’ll be specializing in SigFox, LoRa, Symphony Hyperlink, and Weightless. Though there are different proprietary protocols and stacks such because the Dash7 Alliance Protocol, they haven’t gained as a lot traction and gained’t be lined on this article. LTE-M and Narrowband-IoT (additionally referred to as “NB-IoT” and “LTE-M2,” and defined superbly right here) have emerged as new, huge gamers within the area. With 5G sweeping over the horizon, the rapidly-transforming IoT connectivity panorama is poised for one more main shift. It’s essential to grasp each how LPWAN suits into that panorama, and the way to weigh the prices and advantages of various LPWAN applied sciences within the area, with a view to be well-prepared for future transformations in connectivity choices.

The next sections will present an summary of every of the LPWAN applied sciences. In the remainder of this sequence, we’ll dedicate particular person posts to every of the choices, taking a deeper dive into the assorted professionals and cons of every. We’ll additionally do a technical drill-down on their underlying know-how stacks.

“It’s essential to grasp each how LPWAN suits into that panorama and the way to weigh the prices and advantages of various LPWAN applied sciences within the area.”

-Calum McClelland

NB-IoT and LTE-M

LTE-M and Narrowband-IoT (NB-IoT) are promising additions to the LPWAN area. LTE-M is Third Technology Partnership Undertaking’s (generally referred to as3GPP”) response to intense curiosity in LPWAN options that piggyback on customary LTE connectivity whereas preserving assets. NB-IoT is one other 3GPP assemble difficult the disruption Sigfox and LoRa Alliance (under) ignited, nonetheless, NB-IoT is totally different from LTE-M in that it operates outdoors of the LTE assemble.

One huge benefit of NB-IoT is because of its easier waveform: the know-how consumes minimal energy. One other huge benefit is value. By selecting chipsets particularly engineered for NB-IoT protocols, which have easier building, the general part value is decreased. Lastly, NB-IoT has potential benefits for sensible metropolis purposes. LinkLabs predicts NB-IoT may need higher constructing penetration in comparison with LTE-M. On the flip aspect, deploying within the US shall be tough due to the ubiquity of LTE, and since chips that additionally embrace LTE-M are sometimes prohibitively costly, you’d have to decide on. However typically it comes right down to your particular Functions; NB-IoT might be finest suited to static belongings like sensible meters whereas LTE-M has advantages in roaming purposes equivalent to autos or drones.

LTE-M has notable benefits. First, it has larger information charges, which is necessary for data-rich use instances. And in contrast to NB-IoT, the front-end is comparatively easy. Nonetheless, along with LTE being primarily a US know-how, there are different limitations to contemplate. For one, we’re nonetheless getting a way of energy effectivity with LTE-M. There are additionally draconian licensing points to contemplate. Who needs to be paying corporations like Qualcomm and InterDigitals to license mobile mental property?

Basically, bigger financial and sensible forces may form the NB-IoT vs. LTE-M debate. We’re prone to see main US service suppliers pushing LTE-M since they’ve already invested billions in LTE know-how. In contrast, in the remainder of the world the place GSM spectra are the norm, we are able to count on to see a choice for the (non-LTE) NB-IoT protocol.


The LoRa Alliance is an open, non-profit affiliation fashioned to foster an ecosystem for sure LPWAN applied sciences. It has about 400 member corporations all through North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia, and its founding members embrace IBM, MicroChip, Cisco, Semtech, Bouygues Telecom, Singtel, KPN, Swisscom, Fastnet, and Belgacom.

LoRaWAN is the open-standard networking layer ruled by the LoRa Alliance. Nonetheless, it’s not really open because the underlying chip to implement a full LoRaWAN stack is simply out there by way of Semtech. Principally, LoRa is the bodily layer: the chip. LoRaWAN is the MAC layer: the software program that’s placed on the chip to allow networking. A extra detailed but easy introduction to LORAWAN will be discovered on Jensd’s I/O Buffer’s weblog. 

The performance is just like SigFox in that it’s primarily for uplink-only purposes—information from sensors/gadgets to a gateway—with many endpoints. As a substitute of utilizing narrowband transmission, nonetheless, it distributes info throughout totally different frequency channels and information charges utilizing encoded packets. These messages are much less prone to collide and intervene with each other thereby growing the capability of the gateway.


Based in 2009, SigFox is a French firm based mostly in Labège, France. SigFox has had vital traction within the LPWAN area on account of its profitable advertising and marketing campaigns in Europe. It additionally boasts an unlimited ecosystem of distributors together with Texas Devices, Silicon Labs, and Axom. Not too long ago, SigFox has invested most of its efforts into the quickly accelerating European market—a consideration for US-focused adopters.

SigFox makes use of proprietary know-how, an instance of utilizing a sluggish modulation fee to realize a extra prolonged vary. Because of this design selection, SigFox is a wonderful possibility for purposes the place the system solely must ship small, rare bursts of information.

Attainable purposes embrace parking sensors, water meters, or sensible rubbish cans. Nonetheless, it additionally has some drawbacks. Sending information again to the sensors/gadgets (downlink functionality) is severely restricted, and sign interference can develop into a difficulty.

Hyperlink Labs is a LoRa Alliance member and thus makes use of the LoRa chip talked about above. Nonetheless, as an alternative of utilizing LoRaWAN, Hyperlink Labs has constructed a proprietary MAC layer (software program) on prime of Semtech’s chips referred to as Symphony Hyperlink.

Hyperlink Labs was based in 2013 by former members of the Johns Hopkins College Utilized Physics Laboratory and is headquartered in Annapolis, Maryland.

Symphony Hyperlink provides some very important connectivity options in comparison with LoRaWAN together with assured message receipt, firmware improve over-the-air, removing of responsibility cycle restrict, repeater functionality, and dynamic vary.


Weightless SIG (particular curiosity group) was based in 2008 with the mission of standardizing LPWAN applied sciences. There are 5 “Promotor Group Members” together with Accenture, ARM, M2COMM, Sony-Europe, and Telensa.

Weightless is the one really open customary that operates within the sub-1 GHz unlicensed spectrum. There are three variations of Weightless that serve totally different functions:

Weightless-W: leverages whitespace (unused native spectrum in licensed TV band)

Weightless-N: unlicensed spectrum narrowband protocol born out of NWave’s know-how

Weightless-P: bidirectional protocol born out of M2COMM’s Platanus know-how

Weightless N and P are the extra in style choices since Weightless-W has a shorter battery life.


Nwave is similar to SigFox relating to performance however boasts a greater MAC-layer implementation. It claims to make use of “superior demodulation methods” to permit its community to coexist with different radio applied sciences with out extra noise. Like SigFox, it’s finest for sensor-based networks, temperature readings, tank stage monitoring, sensible metering, and different such purposes.


This customary makes use of FDMA+TDMA modulation in a 12.5 kHz narrowband (higher than SigFox however lower than LoRa). It additionally has an adaptive information fee, just like Symphony Hyperlink (200 bps to 100 kbps). The sensitivity is kind of excessive, -134 dBm at 625 bps, and helps each PSK and GMSK modulation.

Weightless-P is smart for personal networks, extra subtle Functions, and instances during which controlling uplink information and downlink information is necessary. Improvement kits for Weightless-P are simply beginning to come to the market now.

There are necessary nuances between the LPWAN applied sciences mentioned above, and with the brand new competitors of NB-IoT and LTE-M protocols, it may be laborious to maintain monitor of the shifting LPWAN panorama. I hope that this sequence empowers you to make knowledgeable choices when selecting amongst totally different LPWAN applied sciences in your subsequent IoT resolution.

Initially printed April seventeenth, 2017. Up to date February 2, 2023.



Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

Most Popular

Recent Comments