Saturday, March 25, 2023
HomeNanotechnologyDeformation Twinning Mechanism Might Affect Alloy Design

Deformation Twinning Mechanism Might Affect Alloy Design

Analysis has proven that face-centered cubic (fcc) composites with high-density and nanoscale deformation twins can drastically enhance the stability of ductility and power. Nonetheless, the microscopic dislocation processes that allow nice twinnability are unknown.

Deformation Twinning Mechanism Could Influence Alloy Design

Schematics of deformation construction evolution with rising pressure ranges (ϵ1 to ϵ4) by way of completely different twinning mechanisms with partials nucleated from grain boundaries. (A) Transformation-mediated twinning, exhibiting the γ → SF/ε → γtw two-step twinning course of, the formation of the attribute γ/ε/γ and γ/γtw/ε/γ deformation lamellar constructions. (B) Classical layer-by-layer twinning in thermodynamically steady fcc supplies with optimistic SFE. Lu, S. et al. (2022).

A current examine within the journal PNAS Nexus found transformation-mediated twinning (TMT), a novel twinning course of current in metastable fcc substances. A displacive change from the fcc part to the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) part precedes this course of, accompanied by a subsequent transition from the hcp part to the fcc twin.

Deformation Mechanisms for Metallic Supplies

Plastic deformation of metallic supplies is primarily managed by the nucleation and motion of dislocations. Nevertheless, strengthening metals by way of typical strategies of making inner obstacles for dislocation movement compromises power and ductility.

To beat this, further deformation mechanisms corresponding to strain-stimulated part transformation or twinning will be employed. These approaches have produced alloys with excessive power and distinctive ductility as a result of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP).

Deformation twinning (DT) is a face-centered cubic (fcc) materials deformation course of. It entails the deposition and gliding of Shockley partial misalignments on successive close-packed planes, resulting in a progressive inversion of the close-packed aircraft stacking order from fcc (ABCABC) to twin (CBACBA).

One other technique, deformation-induced martensite transformation (DIMT), includes common partial actions on each different close-packed aircraft, resulting in the transformation of fcc to a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) construction (γ → ε).

This transformation happens equally to DT, involving nucleation on a stacking fault (SF) aircraft, the formation of a four-layer ε nucleus, and ε thickening.

Challenges in Understanding Concurrent Deformation Mechanisms

Standard plasticity ideas and strategies regard the deformation processes of DIMT and DT as mutually unique, occurring in metals with distinct bands of stacking fault energies (SFEs) as a result of to chemical variations.

Nonetheless, DIMT and DT have been seen in comparable grains in a number of metallic methods, producing a singular various lamellar construction composed of nano-thickened fcc twin (tw) and hcp laths.

This nanosized deformation sample is important as a result of it accommodates appreciable plasticity and interacts extensively with dislocations, triggering improved work-hardening functionality.

But, the coexistence of DIMT and DT calls into query the present understanding of the underlying microscopic course of, which stays unclear even after over a half-century of commentary.

This incomplete data of the deformation kinetics in these alloys and metals has hindered the capability to reliably forecast composition-structure-property correlations, limiting the power to develop supplies with higher mechanical traits.

Novel Transformation-Mediated Twinning Mechanism in Metastable Alloys

On this examine, the authors got down to examine the atomistic mechanisms that trigger the deformation mode transition from γ → ε DIMT to DT in thermodynamically unstable (metastable) fcc alloys and metals.

To attain this, the authors used quantum mechanical density practical principle (DFT) calculations to determine a twinning mechanism that doesn’t observe the classical γ → γ twin layer-by-layer twinning (cTW) path.

As an alternative, the authors proposed a novel transformation-mediated twinning (TMT) mechanism to clarify the pronounced twinning actions noticed in metastable alloys.

To grasp the TMT mechanism, the authors used DFT simulations to exhibit that DT could also be completed via an intermediate γ → ε DIMT by successively activating clusters of partial dislocations, leading to a two-step γ → ε → γ twin twinning course of.

Essential Findings

The examine has revealed that the two-step transformation course of (γ → ε → γ tw) is a important mechanism underlying the distinctive twinnability and formation of nano lamella deformation constructions in metastable fcc alloys.

Whereas the reverse ε → γ transformation in hcp metals has been noticed, the two-step transformation has not been thought of a vital mechanism as a result of limitations in experiments in figuring out the true SFE in metastable supplies.

Nevertheless, the current examine has used quantum-mechanical DFT calculations to entry important materials parameters that management the two-step part transformation processes with excessive decision, enabling the institution of the composition-SFE-deformation mechanism relationship.

These findings present a strong physics-based and common understanding of the plasticity principle in metastable fcc supplies and information the design of superior high-strength supplies to beat the strength-ductility trade-off within the infinite composition house.

Future analysis can additional discover the applicability of the two-step transformation mechanism to different metastable fcc alloys, and validate the findings experimentally to help the event of revolutionary supplies with superior mechanical properties.

Examine co-author Music Lu feedback on the findings, “Improved mechanical properties of structural supplies allow lowered weight and want for uncooked supplies and may thus contribute to the vitality saving objectives which might be wanted for a extra sustainable society.”


Lu, S. et al. (2022). Concept of transformation-mediated twinning. PNAS Nexus. Obtainable at:

Supply:  KTH Royal Institute of Know-how

Disclaimer: The views expressed listed below are these of the creator expressed of their non-public capability and don’t essentially symbolize the views of Restricted T/A AZoNetwork the proprietor and operator of this web site. This disclaimer types a part of the Phrases and situations of use of this web site.



Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

Most Popular

Recent Comments