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HomeNanotechnologyComparative research of extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells and mind...

Comparative research of extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells and mind endothelial cells attenuating blood–mind barrier permeability by way of regulating Caveolin-1-dependent ZO-1 and Claudin-5 endocytosis in acute ischemic stroke | Journal of Nanobiotechnology

Isolation of EVs

EVs derived from BMSCs and BECs have been remoted by ultrafiltration and Exo-Prep equipment (HansaBioMed Life Sciences) in line with the producer’s protocol. Briefly, BMSCs and BECs have been seeded into 75 cm3 flasks and cultured to 50–60% confluence. Then, EVs-deprived fetal bovine serum (EVs-free FBS) was ready by ultracentrifuge at 100,000 g for 18 h below 4 ℃ (XPN-100, Beckman Coulter) in line with a earlier report [26] after which was added into tradition medium when cells grew to 70–80% confluence. Finally, cells have been allowed to develop for an additional 24 h. After that, the supernatants have been collected, centrifuged below 1000 g for five min, filtered by 0.22 μm membrane filters (Millipore), after which concentrated by ultrafiltration spin columns (28932358, Cytiva). Exo-prep reagent was added to the concentrated supernatant and left to face for 1 h on ice till centrifuged at 10,000 g for an additional 1 h below 4 ℃. The EVs-enriched precipitation was washed with chilly PBS 3 occasions and centrifuged once more at 10,000 g below 4 ℃ for five min to completely abandon the supernatant and reagent. The ultimate precipitation, together with BEC-EVs or BMSC-EVs, was resuspended in 200 μl PBS and saved at − 80 ℃ fridge until additional experiments. All samples have been filtered once more utilizing 0.22 μm membrane filters to make sure pattern sterility earlier than administration.

EVs measurement distribution, morphology identification, and phagocytosis experiment

The dimensions distribution of BEC-EVs and BMSC-EVs was decided by a nanoparticle monitoring evaluation (NTA) system (Nanosight-NS500, Malvern Panalytical Ltd), and the morphological pictures have been taken by transmission electron microscope (TEM) below 40 ok × magnification (Service supplied by Servicebio Inc.). Western blotting was used to determine the floor markers (TSG 101, HSP 70, Alix, CD 9, and CD 63). To confirm EVs from two sources of cells have been phagocytized by BECs, they have been labeled by 5 μM DiI (V22885, Invitrogen) after which washed by PBS 3 occasions to take away the surplus dye, and DiI labeled BEC/BMSC-EVs have been then co-cultured with b. End3 cells for 10–120 min below 37 ℃ or 4 ℃. Subsequently, cells have been fastened by 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) and permeabilized by 0.5% Triton X-100. Nucleus was stained by DAPI (C1005, Beyotime) earlier than commentary. Pictures have been taken by a confocal microscope (SP8, Leica) below 63 × goal. For adverse management, DMEM containing EVs-free FBS was subjected to EVs isolation and DiI dye labeling, the identical as EVs samples. The adverse management samples have been additionally utilized to NTA, TEM, and phagocytosis experiments.

Cell cultures and OGD remedy

BECs (b. End3 mouse mind endothelial cell line) and rat BMSCs (Bought from Shanghai Zhong Qiao Xin Zhou Biotechnology Co., Ltd) have been cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) (11965092, Gibco) with 1% penicillin/streptomycin (15070063, Gibco) and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (26140079, Gibco) below 37℃ with 95% O2 and 5% CO2. Cells inside 10 passages have been employed within the research. BECs have been subjected to 4 or 6 h-oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) by a hypoxic chamber to imitate the hypoxic and glucose scarcity standing. Briefly, the medium of BECs was changed with glucose-deprived DMEM (11966025, Gibco), and cells have been transferred to a hypoxic chamber (MIC-101, Billups-Rothenberg). The oxygen proportion within the chamber was decided by Nuvair O2 QuickStick (Nuvair). The air flow fee of N2 was managed between 10–20 L/min, and the chamber was sealed till the O2% ≤ 0.5%, after which BECs have been cultured at 37 ℃ for 4 or 6 h.

Dedication of optimum OGD period and EVs administered dosage

To find out optimum OGD period and dosage of EVs administration, b. End3 cells on the density of 1 × 104 cells/nicely have been seeded into 96 nicely plates and cultured in a single day at 37 ℃ with 5% CO2, after which 4 or 6-h-OGD was employed. After that, the medium containing 10% CCK-8 answer (C0037, Beyotime) was changed in every nicely. BECs have been cultured for an additional 2 h till the absorbance of every nicely was learn by a microplate reader (M5, SpectraMax) with the excitation wavelength at 450 nm. OD worth of every nicely was learn, normalized, and introduced as ratio vs. Management group (set as 1).

For appropriate OGD period evaluation, cell viability in teams of Management, OGD 4 h, and OGD 6 h was evaluated. And for optimum EVs dosage appraisal, the particle variety of remoted EVs was decided by NTA. BECs have been divided into 8 teams as follows: Management, OGD, OGD + low dosage of BEC-EVs (~ 5 × 109 BEC-EVs), OGD + center dosage of BEC-EVs (~ 1 × 1010 BEC-EVs), OGD + excessive dosage of BEC-EVs (~ 2 × 1010 BEC-EVs), and OGD + low dosage of BMSC-EVs (~ 5 × 109 BMSC-EVs), OGD + center dosage of BMSC-EVs (~ 1 × 1010 BMSC-EVs), OGD + excessive dosage of BMSC-EVs (~ 2 × 1010 BMSC-EVs).

Everlasting MCAo mannequin institution, EVs administration, and animal grouping

The animal experiment protocol was authorised by the Ethics Committee of the College of Macau (Ethics quantity: UMARE-035–2020), and animal advantages have been ensured in line with the Information for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (eighth version, Washington, DC: The Nationwide Academies Press, 2011). Wholesome male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats (weighing 250-280 g, ~ 8 weeks) have been anesthetized by 1.5% (w/v) sodium pentobarbital intraperitoneal injection (30 mg/kg) earlier than they suffered from surgical process. A longitudinal midline incision within the neck was made at 2–3 cm under the incisor tooth, and customary carotid, inner carotid, and exterior carotid arteries separation was carried out. Then, a micro-cut was made on the frequent carotid artery, and 0.25 mm-diameter monofilament thread with a silicone prime was inserted by way of the minimize and superior 1.6–1.8 cm into the inner carotid artery to succeed in the bifurcation of center cerebral artery. Lastly, the incision was closed and disinfected. Surgical procedure that solely made the minimize and artery separation with out thread insertion was performed in SHAM group rats. Rats have been grouped in line with random digits desk generated by laptop software program. 4 teams have been randomly generated in line with the desk, together with SHAM, pMCAo, pMCAo + BEC-EVs (1 × 1010 BEC-EVs), and pMCAo + BMSC-EVs (1 × 1010 BMSCs-EVs). Rats with the modified neurological severity rating (mNSS) above 6 and Bederson rating above 2 submit surgical procedure have been thought-about to achieve success modeled, and people with out profitable established pMCAo or lifeless have been excluded on this research. BEC-EVs and BMSC-EVs on the quantity of ~ 1 × 1010 particles have been intravenously administered as soon as by way of tail vein instantly after surgical procedure whereas PBS with out EVs was employed in pMCAo group with the identical routine. Whole 65 rats have been used on this research, and 9 rats have been lifeless earlier than 24 h after surgical procedure, which have been excluded from the research. For TTC staining and Evans blue (EB) leakage experiments, 8 rats per teams have been utilized, and three rats per group for mind microvessels isolation, western blotting, and immunofluorescence. 10 rats per group for neurological perform analysis. In the course of the pMCAo surgical procedure, all procedures have been carried out gently by expert investigators, and animal physique temperature have been saved at 37 ℃ by heat pad to keep away from physique temperature loss. All rats have been saved and handled evenly in an animal room with 12 h of sunshine/darkish cycle lighting setting below 20–25 °C room temperature and 50–60% humidity for twenty-four h. Drug administration order for various rats have been randomized in each particular person experiment to attenuate confounders. Meals and water have been freely out there in cages after the surgical procedure and EVs remedy, and the rats have been euthanized by CO2 inhalation on the finish of the research.

Mind cortex microvessels isolation

Rat mind microvessels (BMV) have been remoted primarily based on beforehand reported strategies [27], and all procedures have been carried out on ice. Briefly, mind samples have been collected and shortly preserved in MCDB 131 medium (10372019, Gibco). After white-matter was roughly eliminated, cortex samples have been homogenized and centrifuged (2000 g, 5 min at 4 °C). The supernatant was discarded, and the pellet was resuspended in 15% dextran (MW ~ 70 kDa; 31,390, Sigma-Aldrich). After centrifuged at 10,000 g for 15 min below 4 °C, the pellets with enriched BMV have been achieved for additional evaluation. The remoted BMV was recognized by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting.

The analysis of neurological perform, infarct quantity and EB leakage

Neurological perform in rats was measured by Bederson rating (5-points scoring scale) and mNSS (18-points scoring scale) as described earlier than [28, 29]. Scores in every group have been recorded instantly at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after pMCAo by skilled investigators who have been blinded to the experiment design. The detailed rating scales have been supplied in (Further file 1). For mind infarct quantity analysis, 2% 2,3,5-Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC, T819366, Macklin) have been used to stain 2 mm coronal slices below 37 ℃ for 20 min avoiding gentle. ImageJ (Model 1.53f51, NIH) software program was used to calculate the ratio of infarct space to the entire mind space. For EB leakage evaluation, rats have been intravenously administered 2% EB (4 ml/kg) and allowed to flow into for 1 h. Rats have been sacrificed by intraventricularly perfused with 50 ml chilly PBS below anesthesia. Entire brains have been collected and imaged by IVIS® Spectrum small animal picture system (PerkinElmer) at excitation wavelength: 620 nm and emission wavelength: 710 nm.

BECs permeability assay

5 × 104/nicely b. End3 cells have been seeded into higher chamber with 0.4 μm pore sized 24-well transwell inserts (11820050, Costar) and cultured for 72 h to succeed in confluence. Earlier than OGD stimulation, DMEM and glucose disadvantaged DMEM (11966–025, Gibco) containing 2 mg/ml TRITC-Dextran (4.4 kDa; T1037, Sigma-Aldrich) have been added into higher inserts in Management and OGD teams, respectively, and glucose disadvantaged DMEM medium was added into each decrease chamber. Subsequently, EVs from two sources of cells have been diluted in glucose disadvantaged tradition medium and added to higher chambers in remedy teams, whereas equal quantity of tradition medium was added to normalize the chamber quantity in different teams. After OGD 4 h, 50 μl medium of every higher and decrease chambers was collected, and TRITC-dextran fluorescence depth was learn by microplate reader (SpectraMax M5) at wavelength of excitation: 550 nm and emission: 572 nm. The permeability coefficient was calculated by the next technique as beforehand reported [30]:

$${textual content{P}}_{{{textual content{dextran}}}} , = ,left( {{textual content{RFU}}_{{textual content{decrease chamber}}} /{textual content{ RFU}}_{{textual content{higher insert}}} } proper) , left( {{1 }/{textual content{ S}}} proper) , left( {textual content{V}} proper) , ({1 }/{textual content{ t}}).$$

“RFU” was the fluorescent depth of higher insert and decrease chamber, and “S” indicated the floor space of cell monolayer, whereas “V” was the amount of decrease chamber and “t” represented the time TRITC-dextran unfold.

Western blotting

Whole protein extracts of cell samples, BEC-EVs and BMSC-EVs, and remoted mind microvessels have been collected, and ProteoExtract Subcellular Proteome Extraction Equipment (539790, Calbiochem) was used to extract subcellular protein parts in cytosolic fraction (CF), membrane fraction (MF), and actin cytoskeletal fraction (ACF) adopted manufacture’s protocol. Samples with equal protein focus have been boiled, electrophoresis separated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gels and transferred into 0.22 μm pore sized polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes (1620177, Bio-Rad). After blocking in 5% skimmed milk, membranes have been incubated with major and secondary antibodies, after which washed by TBS-T (Tris-buffered saline with 0.1% Tween 20). ChemiDoc MP Imaging System (Bio-Rad) have been utilized for imaging. Bands gray worth was calculated by ImageJ software program and relative expression degree of proteins was introduced as ratio of β-actin or Fractions REF (Calpain I, Calnexin, Vimentin). Antibodies used on this research have been as follows: ZO-1 (1:1000, 61–7300, Invitrogen); Claudin-5 (1:1000, 34–1600, Invitrogen); CD 31 (1:1000, ab281583, Abcam); NeuN (1:5000, ab104225, Abcam); β-actin (1:5000, ab8227,Abcam); Caveolin-1 (1:1000, ab2910, Abcam); TSG 101 (1:1000, ab125011, Abcam); HSP 70 (1:1000, ab137680, Abcam); Calpain I (1:1000, ab108400, Abcam); Calnexin (1: 1000, ab22595, Abcam); Vimentin (1:1000, ab92547, Abcam); Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (1:3000, ab6721, Abcam); Goat Anti-Mouse IgG H&L (HRP) (1:3000, ab67879, Abcam); Regular rabbit IgG (1 μg/ml, 2729S, Cell Signaling Know-how).

Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay

Cell samples have been lysed by lysis buffer (P0013, Beyotime) with proteinase inhibitor cocktail, after which complete protein was extracted, and focus was evaluated because the protocol of western blotting. Protein G-Magnetic Beads (HY-K0204, MCE) have been conjugated with Anti-Cav-1 antibodies or Anti-Regular rabbit IgG for two h below 4 ℃. After magnetic separation and washed by PBS-T (0.5% Tween-20 in PBS, pH 7.4) for 4 occasions, and 300 μg cell complete proteins have been added to beads and incubated in a single day at 4 ℃. Extreme antigens have been washed by PBS-T, and conjugated antigens have been eluted by heating below 95 ℃ for five min with loading buffer and separated by electrophoresis as western blotting.

Immunofluorescence staining

For immunofluorescence samples preparation, rats have been sacrificed, after which, 50 ml chilly PBS and 50 ml chilly 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) have been intraventricularly perfused slowly. Entire brains have been collected, fastened by 4% PFA and dehydrated in 15% and 30% sucrose answer. 10 μm mind cryosections have been minimize by microtome (CryoStar NX70, Thermo Fisher Scientific). Mind microvessels have been resuspended in PBS and dropped at glass slides after isolation, and samples have been ready after air dry. Cell samples have been ready in confocal dish after remedy. All samples have been washed by PBS, fastened by 4% PFA and permeabilized by 0.1% Triton X-100. Main and secondary antibodies (Alexa Fluor® 488 or 594 of rabbit or mouse, 1:500, ab150113; ab150080; ab150077, Abcam) have been incubated with samples, after which DAPI was stained for nucleus earlier than sections have been sealed to be imaged by confocal (Lecia, SP8) or fluorescent microscope (Lecia, DMi8) below 63 × , 10 × , and 40 × goals for cells, mind slices and microvessels, respectively. Pictures have been processed by the microscopy software program LAS X (Lecia), and fluorescence depth was measured by ImageJ software program. The next major antibodies have been used: ZO-1 (1:200, 61–7300, Invitrogen); Claudin-5 (1:150, 34–1600, Invitrogen), Caveolin-1 (1:250, ab2910, Abcam); CD31 (1:200, ab64543, Abcam).

Cav-1 siRNA and pcDNA 3.1 vector transfection

Cav-1 siRNA/pcDNA 3.1 and FAM-negative management siRNA/pcDNA 3.1-GFP (GenePhrama) have been transfected by using lipofectamine 3000 reagent (L3000015, Invitrogen) in line with the producer’s protocol. Cav-1 knockdown and overexpression have been verified by western blotting and GFP/FAM labels imaging below 10 × goal by fluorescent microscope (Lecia, DMi8). Detailed pcDNA 3.1 vector gene map has been supplied in (Further file 1).siRNA sequences utilized:


Cav-1 (antisense 5′-3′): UUCAAAGAGUGGAUCGCAGTT.

Unfavorable Management siRNA oligo (sense 5′-3′): UUCUCCGAACGUGUCACGUTT.

Unfavorable Management siRNA oligo (antisense 5′-3′): ACGUGACACGUUCGGAGAATT.

Cav-1 gene data utilized in pcDNA 3.1 vector: NCBI Gene ID:12389.

Transmission electron microscopy

TEM was employed to watch the morphology of the EVs and the rat mind microvessel microstructure. Briefly, for EVs samples, 20 μl of EVs suspension was dropped onto the 150 meshes carbon filmed copper grid for five min. Thereafter, 2% phosphotungstic acid was dropped on the copper grid to stain for two min. The samples have been noticed below TEM (HT7800, Hitachi) on the 40 ok × magnification. For rat microvessel, 1 mm3 rat cortex mind tissues have been harvested and glued in 2.5% glutaraldehyde answer and 1% OsO4. Afterward, samples have been dehydrated by utilizing 30%-95% ethanol, after which subjected to resin penetration and embedding. The embedded samples have been minimize into 60 nm part by utilizing the ultra-microtome (Leica UC7, Leica). Tissue samples have been fished out onto the 150 meshes formvar filmed cuprum grids and stained by 2% uranium acetate saturated alcohol answer for 8 min. After rinsed in 70% ethanol, and ultra-pure water for 3 occasions, respectively, samples have been then stained by 2.6% lead citrate for 8 min, adopted by rinsed in ultra-pure water 3 occasions. Sections have been dried in a single day and noticed below TEM with the magnification of two ok × or 20 ok × . ImageJ software program was used to quantify the caveolae construction density.

Statistical evaluation

All knowledge of this research have been collected and analyzed by GraphPad Prism 8 software program and introduced as imply ± customary deviation (SD). Statistical significance was thought-about when p worth < 0.05. Moreover, two-way ANOVA was carried out in experiments which contain two variations. All knowledge have been normalized and calculated as fold of Management group.



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